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This paper discusses the operational characteristics of the topologies for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), fuel cell vehicles (FCV), and more electric vehicles (MEV). A brief description of series hybrid, parallel hybrid, and fuel cell-based propulsion systems are presented. The paper also presents fuel cell propulsion applications, more specific to light-duty passenger cars as well as heavy-duty buses. Finally, some of the major fundamental issues that currently face these advanced vehicular technologies including the challenges for market penetration are highlighted.