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In this work, an all-fiber high-resolution refractive index sensor based on a microstructured fiber Bragg grating is presented. The proposed structure relies on a partial and localized etching of the cladding layer along a standard grating. The main spectral changes of the structured grating are the increasing of the stopband and the formation of a narrow allowed band strongly dependent on the etching features and the surrounding refractive index. A sensor prototype has been fabricated by using wet etching and a proper masking procedure; experimental results reveal the possibility to carry out low-cost refractive index measurements with a resolution of 4·10-5.