Skip to Main Content
Balanced truncation is a well-known technique for model-order reduction with a known uniform reduction error bound. However, its practical application to large-scale problems is hampered by its cubic computational complexity. While model-order reduction by projection to approximate dominant subspaces without balancing has produced encouraging experimental results, the approximation error bound has not been fully analyzed. In this paper, a square-integral reduction error bound is derived for unbalanced dominant subspace projection by using a frequency-domain solution of the Lyapunov equation. Such an error bound is valid in both the frequency and time domains. Then, a dominant subspace computation scheme together with three Krylov subspace options is introduced. It is analytically justified that the Krylov subspace for moment matching at low frequencies is able to provide a better dominant subspace approximation than the Krylov subspace at high frequencies, while a rational Krylov subspace with a proper real shift parameter is capable of achieving superior approximation than the Krylov subspace at low frequency. A heuristic method of choosing a real shift parameter is also introduced based on its new connection to the discretization of a continuous-time model. The computation algorithm and theoretical analysis are then examined by several numerical examples to demonstrate the effectiveness. Finally, the dominant subspace computation scheme is applied to the model-order reduction of two large-scale interconnect circuit examples.