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We review the development trends and state-of-the-art technologies of large-port-count optical switches over the past decade. Practical implementation of optical switch fabrics is discussed in terms of optical switch architectures, optical configurations, port counts, switch elements, and so on. We describe compact and stable optical crossconnect three-dimensional microelectromechanical systems (3-D-MEMS) switches that are a key technology in recent photonic networks. To show how these enable simple, fast, and flexible wavelength applications in the photonic layer, we discuss the fast and stable MEMS switching by novel comb actuator and V-shaped torsion bar, compact optical configuration with roof-type mirror, stable switch housing with cubic structure, packaging techniques by tolerance expansion and simple procedures of the component assembly, MEMS mirror controller with fast and low power digital notch circuit, reliability by shock absorption, and field trials. In addition, we discuss the impact of these switches on system integration for recent metropolitan area networks and enterprise networks.