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The emissivity of foam-covered water surface at L-band: theoretical modeling and experimental results from the FROG 2003 field experiment

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12 Author(s)
A. Camps ; Dept. of Signal Theor. & Commun., Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain ; M. Vall-llossera ; R. Villarino ; N. Reul
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Sea surface salinity can be measured by microwave radiometry at L-band (1400-1427 MHz). This frequency is a compromise between sensitivity to the salinity, small atmospheric perturbation, and reasonable pixel resolution. The description of the ocean emission depends on two main factors: (1) the sea water permittivity, which is a function of salinity, temperature, and frequency, and (2) the sea surface state, which depends on the wind-induced wave spectrum, swell, and rain-induced roughness spectrum, and by the foam coverage and its emissivity. This study presents a simplified two-layer emission model for foam-covered water and the results of a controlled experiment to measure the foam emissivity as a function of salinity, foam thickness, incidence angle, and polarization. Experimental results are presented, and then compared to the two-layer foam emission model with the measured foam parameters used as input model parameters. At 37 psu salt water the foam-induced emissivity increase is ∼0.007 per millimeter of foam thickness (extrapolated to nadir), increasing with increasing incidence angles at vertical polarization, and decreasing with increasing incidence angles at horizontal polarization.

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IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing  (Volume:43 ,  Issue: 5 )