Skip to Main Content
This letter presents a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) with a high-Q inductor in a wafer-level package for the LC-resonator. The on-chip inductor is implemented using the redistribution metal layer of the wafer-level package (WLP), and therefore it is called a WLP inductor. Using the thick passivation and copper metallization, the WLP inductor has high quality-factor (Q-factor). A 2-nH inductor exhibits a Q-factor of 8 at 2 GHz. The center frequency of the VCO is 2.16 GHz with a tuning range of 385 MHz (18%). The minimum phase noise is measured to be -120.2 dBc/Hz at an offset frequency of 600 kHz. The dc power consumed by the VCO-core is 1.87 mW with a supply voltage of 1.7 V and a current of 1.1 mA. The output power with a 50-Ω load is -12.5±1.3 dBm throughout the whole tuning range. From the best of our knowledge, compared with recently published 2-GHz-band 0.35 μm CMOS VCOs in the literature, the VCO in this work shows the lowest power consumption and the best figure-of-merit.