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From hardware to software to knowware: IT's third liberation?

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1 Author(s)
Ruqian Lu ; Acad. of Math. & Syst. Sci., Fudan Univ., Shanghai, China

Knowware is a natural development in IT after hardware and software. It is a knowledge module that is independent, commercialized, suitable for computer manipulation, and directly usable by a class of software. It is directly related to intelligence: if software is the condensation and crystallization of knowledge, then knowware is the condensation and crystallization of intelligence. Pseudo natural languages (PNLs) such as ZHIWEN make it possible to develop knowware in a fast and massive fashion. They also offer a way to separate software developers from knowware developers, so that software engineers need only develop software tools, leaving the task of knowware development to the domain-specific experts.

Published in:

Intelligent Systems, IEEE  (Volume:20 ,  Issue: 2 )

Date of Publication:

March-April 2005

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