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This work presents the transient thermal analysis of a permanent magnet (PM) synchronous traction motor. The motor has magnets inset into the surface of the rotor to give a maximum field-weakening range of between 2 and 2.5. Both analytically based lumped circuit and numerical finite element methods have been used to simulate the motor. A comparison of the two methods is made showing the advantages and disadvantages of each. Simulation results are compared with practical measurements.