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High-temperature thermal therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer is currently being applied as a minimally-invasive alternative over traditional forms of treatment. Catheter-based interstitial and transurethral ultrasound applicators are being developed for controlled and selective thermal ablation of prostaric tissues with concurrent MR thermal imaging. As part of this treatment strategy we have devised a transurethral cooling catheter and a cooling jacket to be placed over the endorectal MR imaging coil to protect the urethral mucosa and rectal wall from thermal damage during treatment. The cooling efficiencies and protective abilities of these devices were evaluated in vivo within three canine prostate glands. Invasive and MR derived temperature measurements within the prostate and rectal wall indicate that the protective influence of the endorectal cooling extends 5-10 mm from the rectal wall into the dorsal prostate. The urethral cooling extends ∼5 mm from the cooling balloon. The protective capabilities were further verified with subsequent histological analysis with TTC stained tissue sections and contrast enhanced T1-weighted MR images post treatment. Both of these cooling devices are compatible with the MR thermometry and can be used to protect the urethral mucosa and rectal wall during prostate thermal ablation with interstitial and transurethral ultrasound devices.