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Energy systems using hydrogen could free us from dependence on oil and from the threats of smog and greenhouse gases. Yet three problems make hydrogen prohibitively expensive: generating it from a clean source, storing it, and moving it to wherever it's needed. To keep the dream of hydrogen alive, the INEEL researchers talk of using it to refine low-grade petroleum and make synthetic fuels. But if the goal is to cut greenhouse gas emissions, why use the hydrogen to refine petroleum? In fact, why make hydrogen at all? If instead we used nuclear energy to replace coal-fired power plants, it would save four times as much in carbon dioxide emissions. And if the goal is to reduce petroleum imports then hydrogen can be made more efficiently from natural gas.