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Wafer level chip scale packaging (WLCSP) is very promising for the miniature of packaging size, the reduction of manufacturing cost, and the enhancement of the package's performance. However, the long-term board level reliability of integrated circuit (IC) devices using wafer level packaging with large distances from neutral point (DNP) is still not fully solved. This research proposes a novel, alternative WLCSP design for facilitating higher board level reliability. The main feature of the novel WLCSP is basically in its double-pad structure (DPS) design in the interface between solder joints and silicon chip. To characterize the solder joint reliability of the DPS-WLCSP, a three-dimensional (3-D) nonlinear finite element (FE) modeling technique is employed. Based on the FE modeling, the numerical accelerated thermal cycling (ATC) test is performed under the JEDEC temperature cycling specification. The validity of the proposed FE modeling is verified by using an optical measurement method Twyman-Green interferometer. By the derived incremental equivalent plastic strain, the cumulative cycles to failure in solder joints associated with these four WLCSP are assessed based on a modified Coffin-Manson relationship. The modeled fatigue life is compared against the experimental results that adopt a two-parameter Weibull distribution to characterize cycles-to-failure distribution. For comparison, the investigation also involves several existing types of WLCSP, including the conventional (C-WLCSP), the copper post (CP-WLCSP), and the polymer post (PP-WLCSP), and solder joint reliability performance among these WLCSP packages is extensively compared. The results demonstrate that the DPS-WLCSP design not only has potential for enhancing the corresponding solder joint reliability but is also particularly effective in manufacturing process and cost. And finally, some reliability-enhanced design guidelines are provided through parametric design of the DPS.
Components and Packaging Technologies, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:28 , Issue: 1 )
Date of Publication: March 2005