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We often encounter in distributed systems the need to model, access, and manage state. This state may be, for example, data in a purchase order, service level agreements representing resource availability, or the current load on a computer. We introduce two closely related approaches to modeling and manipulating state within a Web services (WS) framework: the Open Grid Services Infrastructure (OGSI) and WS-Resource Framework (WSRF). Both approaches define conventions on the use of the Web service definition language schema that enable the modeling and management of state. OGSI introduces the idea of a stateful Web service and defines approaches for creating, naming, and managing the lifetime of instances of services; for declaring and inspecting service state data; for asynchronous notification of service state change; for representing and managing collections of service instances; and for common handling of service invocation faults. WSRF refactors and evolves OGSI to exploit new Web services standards, specifically WS-addressing, and to respond to early implementation and application experiences. WSRF retains essentially all of the functional capabilities present in OGSI, while changing some syntax (e.g., to exploit WS-addressing) and also adopting a different terminology in its presentation. In addition, WSRF partitions OGSI functionality into five distinct composable specifications. We explain the relationship between OGSI and WSRF and the related WS-notification specifications, explain the common requirements that both address, and compare and contrast the approaches taken to the realization of those requirements.