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We demonstrate a new electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection structure for high-speed GaAs RF ICs. The structure is composed of small diodes and large transistors using an InGaP heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) technology. Its loading effect and its robustness are evaluated experimentally. The impedance of the new structure at OFF state, represented with an equivalent shunt capacitance and an equivalent shunt resistance, are 0.22 pF and 500 Ω at 10 GHz. The structure can withstand +2700-V and -2900-V human body model ESD pulses. It can clamp voltage more effectively than the conventional diode-based ESD structure. The new structure can be used to protect 10 Gb/s input/output pins of high-speed RF ICs against ESD.