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In this paper, we are interested in soft tissue differentiation by multiband images obtained from the High-Resolution Ultrasonic Transmission Tomography (HUTT) system using a spectral target detection method based on constrained energy minimization (CEM). We have developed a new tissue differentiation method (called "CEM filter bank") consisting of multiple CEM filters specially designed for detecting multiple types of tissues. Statistical inference on the output of the CEM filter bank is used to make a decision based on the maximum statistical significance rather than the magnitude of each CEM filter output. We test and validate this method through three-dimensional interphantom/intraphantom soft tissue classification where target profiles obtained from an arbitrary single slice are used for differentiation over multiple other tomographic slices. The performance of the proposed classifier is assessed using receiver operating characteristic analysis. We also apply our method to classify tiny structures inside a bovine kidney and sheep kidneys. Using the proposed method we can detect physical objects and biological tissues such as styrofoam balls, chicken tissue, calyces, and vessel-duct successfully.