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Solar thermal cell, which consists of 2-propanol dehydrogenation and acetone hydrogenation, converts low temperature solar heat around 100 °C into electric power. In this study, we have studied the influence of proton conductivity in a polymer electrolyte membrane and electrical conductivity on the output of solar thermal cell and the following two results are obtained. (1) Under the situation that electrodes are kept in good contact with an electrolyte in order that the hydrogen gas and acetone are controlled to reach the interface of an electrode and an electrolyte, good performance of the cell is obtained. (2) The performance of the cell is greatly influenced by the thickness of an electrolyte.