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This paper describes the use of distributed human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation to address complex research questions about human performance requirements of future operational concepts and advanced technologies. Recent events in the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and associated research communities that support a move toward distributed simulation are reviewed. The risks of distributed simulation are discussed along with classes of fast time and human-in-the-loop simulation. Specific and candidate architectural requirements to achieve a distributed simulation capability are also described.