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We propose the multiple access collision prevention (MACP) scheme for medium access control (MAC) in ad hoc networks and multihop wireless LANs. MACP is the first and only distributed MAC scheme that can support collision-free transmissions for both control messages and data packets, even in the presence of hidden terminals. Although dual busy tone multiple access (DBTMA) can support collision-free transmissions for data packets, MACP is the first and only distributed MAC scheme that can support collision-free data packet transmissions without relying on busy tone or dual transceivers per mobile device. MACP effectively supports differentiated service through binary countdown and prioritized group activation based on the priority bits and probability density functions for their competition numbers and the distributed differentiated scheduling discipline. The differentiation capability of MACP is considerably stronger than that of IEEE 802.11e in ad hoc networks and multihop wireless LANs.