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Semiconductor lasers with monolithically integrated ring cavities exceeding 1 cm in perimeter were fabricated and characterized optically and electrically. Directional switching was observed, influenced by S-section seeding of unidirectional operation. The lasing threshold was identified by differential current-voltage measurements, which are also shown to be useful in monitoring directional switching. Mode beating was observed at three radio-frequency bands: 7.6, 15.2, and 22.9 GHz.
Date of Publication: Feb. 2005