Scheduled System Maintenance on May 29th, 2015:
IEEE Xplore will be upgraded between 11:00 AM and 10:00 PM EDT. During this time there may be intermittent impact on performance. For technical support, please contact us at We apologize for any inconvenience.
By Topic

Multiple watermarks for stereo audio signals using phase-modulation techniques

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

3 Author(s)
Takahashi, A. ; Tohoku Univ., Sendai, Japan ; Nishimura, R. ; Suzuki, Y.

Audio watermarking techniques are used to embed extra information, typically relating to copyrights, into audio signals. In some applications, embedding of multiple watermarks in a single multimedia content is required. Considering an actual situation, it might be necessary to embed up to three kinds of information as watermarks, i.e., "copyright management information," "copy control information," and "fingerprints." For this purpose, a new watermarking technique capable of embedding multiple watermarks based on phase modulation is proposed in this paper. The idea utilizes the insensitivity of the human auditory system to phase changes with relatively long transition period. In the proposed technique, the phase modulation of the original signal is realized by means of a time-varying all-pass filter. To accomplish the blind detection which is required in detecting the copy control information, this watermark is assigned to the inter-channel phase difference between a stereo audio signal by using frequency shift keying. Meanwhile, the copyright management information and the fingerprint are embedded into both channels by using phase shift keying of different frequency components. Consequently, these three kinds of information are simultaneously embedded into a single time frame. Imperceptibility of the watermark was confirmed through a subjective listening test. Robustness against several kinds of signal processing were evaluated by computer simulations. The proposed method provided good performance in both those subjective and objective tests.

Published in:

Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:53 ,  Issue: 2 )