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Quantum computing has attracted considerable interest in the past decade as a possible way to deal with certain intractable problems of conventional digital computing. Quantum computers built using the versatile methods of solid-state technology are attractive because the many thousands of devices needed for such a computer could be fabricated with well-established technologies. However, the imperfections of solid-state devices constructed in laboratories and factories will limit the use of solid-state devices in quantum computing. The challenge for solid-state quantum computing is to find a. way to use devices without precise knowledge of their physical characteristics.