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The function of the robot is being complex and various. The robot with various inputs generates various outputs. A proper controller is needed to control such a complex robot. We introduce a 2-layer fuzzy controller (2LFC). It can control robustly and has the small number of rules in many input variables. It can not only deal with various inputs but also generate various outputs. The main problem in the fuzzy system is how to design the fuzzy knowledge base. For this specific problem, we optimize the fuzzy controller using the schema co-evolutionary algorithm (SCEA) to find a global optimal solution. Through the design of the optimal fuzzy controller using the SCEA and the simulation of the mobile robot, we verify the efficacy of the 2-layer fuzzy controller and the schema co-evolutionary algorithm.