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Feedback control of electrically stimulated muscle using simultaneous pulse width and stimulus period modulation

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4 Author(s)
Chizeck, H.J. ; Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH, USA ; Ning Lan ; Palmieri, L.S. ; Crago, P.E.

The closed-loop control of electrically stimulated muscle using simultaneous pulse width and frequency modulation is considered. It is shown how the addition of pulse frequency modulation to pulse width modulation can improve controller performance. In single muscle operation, the combination of pulse width and stimulus pulse frequency modulation results in better control of transient responses than with pulse width modulation alone. In the case of costimulation, the controller modulates the pulse stimulus periods of the antagonists in a reciprocal manner, to ensure stable and fast responses. This feedback controller was evaluated in animal experiments. Step responses with rapid rise times but without overshoot were obtained by the combined modulation. Good steady-state and transient performance were obtained over a wide range of static lengths and commands, under different loading conditions and in different animals.

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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:38 ,  Issue: 12 )