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The objective of the paper is to provide an overview on recent trends and future perspectives in image and video coding. Here, I review the rapid development in the field during the past 40 years and outline current state-of-the art strategies for coding images and videos. These and other coding algorithms are discussed in the context of international JPEG, JPEG 2000, MPEG-1/2/4, and H.261/3/4 standards. Novel techniques targeted at achieving higher compression gains, error robustness, and network/device adaptability are described and discussed.