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Orthogonal space-time block codes (OSTBCs) are a class of easily decoded space-time codes that achieve full diversity order in Rayleigh fading channels. OSTBCs exist only for certain numbers of transmit antennas and do not provide array gain like diversity techniques that exploit transmit channel information. When channel state information is available at the transmitter, though, precoding the space-time codeword can be used to support different numbers of transmit antennas and to improve array gain. Unfortunately, transmitters in many wireless systems have no knowledge about current channel conditions. This motivates limited feedback precoding methods such as channel quantization or antenna subset selection. This paper investigates a limited feedback approach that uses a codebook of precoding matrices known a priori to both the transmitter and receiver. The receiver chooses a matrix from the codebook based on current channel conditions and conveys the optimal codebook matrix to the transmitter over an error-free, zero-delay feedback channel. A criterion for choosing the optimal precoding matrix in the codebook is proposed that relates directly to minimizing the probability of symbol error of the precoded system. Low average distortion codebooks are derived based on the optimal codeword selection criterion. The resulting design is found to relate to the famous applied mathematics problem of subspace packing in the Grassmann manifold. Codebooks designed by this method are proven to provide full diversity order in Rayleigh fading channels. Monte Carlo simulations show that limited feedback precoding performs better than antenna subset selection.