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Redundant system of passive markers for ultrasound scanhead tracking

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5 Author(s)
F. Patruno ; Laboratorio di Teenologie Biomediche, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy ; A. Aliverti ; R. L. Dellaca ; D. Burns
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Scanhead tracking by opto-electronic (OE) systems allows high accuracy in three-dimensional (3-D) freehand ultrasound imaging. In this paper, a new set of methods is proposed and compared with the standard approach [Gram-Schmidt method (GS)]. Three redundancy-based algorithms are introduced to compensate for possible loss of markers during data acquisition: regression plane (RP), multiple Gram-Schmidt (MGS), and center of mass least square (CMLS). When combined with the ultrasound instrument, the root-mean-squared (RMS) uncertainty in locating target points, over a working volume of 420 mm×490 mm×100 mm, improved by 7% and 24% using MGS and CMLS method respectively, compared to GS. A lower improvement was obtained with RP methods (5%), using the best marker configuration. In conclusion, CMLS method provides a robust and accurate procedure for 3-D freehand ultrasound scanhead tracking, able to manage possible loss of markers, with interesting perspectives for image fusion and body referenced 3-D ultrasound.

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IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering  (Volume:52 ,  Issue: 1 )