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Future planetary exploration missions can require rovers to perform difficult tasks in rough terrain, with limited human supervision. Knowledge of terrain physical characteristics would allow a rover to adapt its control and planning strategies to maximize its effectiveness. This paper describes recent and current work at MIT in the area of onboard terrain estimation and sensing utilizing visual, tactile, and vibrational feedback. A vision-based method for measuring wheel sinkage is described. A tactile method for on-line terrain parameter estimation is also presented. Finally, a method for terrain classification based on analysis of vibration in the rover suspension is described. It is shown through simulation and experimental results that these methods can lead to accurate and efficient understanding of a rover's physical surroundings.