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As FPGAs become more integrated into high-speed systems, high performance I/O with excellent signal integrity becomes more important. This paper describes how these challenges were met on an FPGA developed to support 1.6 Gbps differential source-synchronous standards and 300 MHz external memory interfaces. The I/O buffer features programmable drive strength, output impedance matching, hot-socketing compliance, and 3.3v tolerance. High-speed performance was achieved using design techniques of differential level-shifters with voltage and temperature compensated current sources, on-chip decoupling capacitors, and floating-well output buffers. In addition, DLLs and programmable phase offset circuits were used to obtain precise timing control. The chip was manufactured on a 90 nm CMOS process.
Date of Conference: 3-6 Oct. 2004