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Asymptotic stability of two-dimensional (2-D) systems in the state-space representation is studied. The concept of finitely constructed bilateral quadratic forms is introduced for the set of bilateral sequences of vectors, and the positivity of a bilateral quadratic form is characterized in terms of the solvability of an algebraic Riccati matrix inequality. A Lyapunov-like stability analysis of 2-D systems is conducted by resorting to positivity tests for a sequence of bilateral quadratic forms generated by a recurrence formula. The effectiveness is proved in an illustrative example.