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The Global Rain Forest Mapping (GRFM) radar mosaics, generated from L-band Japanese Earth Resources Satellite 1 imagery downsampled to 100-m pixel size, provide a two-season spatially continuous coverage of the humid tropical ecosystems of the world. This paper presents a novel classification approach suitable for regional-scale vegetation mapping using the GRFM datasets. The mapping system consists of: 1) an application-dependent wavelet-based edge-preserving smoothing algorithm and 2) a two-stage per-pixel hybrid learning nearest multiple-prototype (NMP) classifier, whose unsupervised first stage is a per-pixel near-optimal vector quantizer, called enhanced Linde-Buzo-Gray (ELBG), recently proposed in pattern recognition literature. Identified as ENMP (NMP with ELBG), this novel classification approach is compared against two alternative systems in the classification of forest cover disturbances located across an area in the Amazon Basin. Surface classes of interest are primary forest, degraded forest, nonforest, and water bodies. Reference maps, derived from 30-m resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery, are provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Abundant quantitative and qualitative evidence shows that: 1) in a forest/nonforest data-mapping task, ENMP provides a testing accuracy of 87%, in line with training accuracies, i.e., the proposed method seems capable of generalizing well over the GRFM South America dataset and 2) among three competing approaches, ENMP provides the best compromise between ease of use, mapping accuracy, and computational time. Starting from these results, ENMP is employed to generate a swamp forest map of the whole Amazon Basin from the two-season GRFM radar mosaic of South America, in the context of the Global Land Cover project (GLC 2000).
Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:42 , Issue: 11 )
Date of Publication: Nov. 2004