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Propagation of electromagnetic waves at MHz frequencies through seawater

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3 Author(s)
Al-Shamma'a, A.I. ; Dept. of Electr. Eng. & Electron., Univ. of Liverpool, UK ; Shaw, A. ; Saman, S.

The nature of the ocean environment and its vast size has necessitated the development of sophisticated equipment and techniques for various underwater applications including diver-to-diver communications, ROV/AUV docking, communications and oil and gas explorations. To facilitate scientific exploration a wide variety of systems and vehicles have been developed to operate within the shallow continental shelf region or in deep oceans. For successful underwater electromagnetic (EM) wave operation, knowledge is required of the wave transmission properties of seawater over all distances both short and long. This information is required for such activities such as: sensor systems, imaging, position fixing, measurement of speed, obstacle detection and avoidance, guidance, communication of data/voice and remote control. This paper presents a new approach of EM wave propagation through seawater. The experimental results conducted in the laboratory and the real environment of seawater is presented.

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:52 ,  Issue: 11 )