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Multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) wireless systems use multiple antenna elements at transmit and receive to offer improved capacity over single antenna topologies in multipath channels. In such systems, the antenna properties as well as the multipath channel characteristics play a key role in determining communication performance. This paper reviews recent research findings concerning antennas and propagation in MIMO systems. Issues considered include channel capacity computation, channel measurement and modeling approaches, and the impact of antenna element properties and array configuration on system performance. Throughout the discussion, outstanding research questions in these areas are highlighted.