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There are many vision algorithms of image processing with CMOS image sensors such as image enhancement, segmentation, feature extraction and pattern recognition. These algorithms are frequently used in software-based operations. Here, the main research interest focuses on how to integrate image processing (vision) algorithms with CMOS integrated systems or how to implement smart retinas in hardware, in terms of their system-level architecture and design methodologies. The approach is compared with state-of-the-art vision chips build using digital SIMD arrays and vision systems using CMOS sensors combined with FPGA technology. As a test bench, an advanced algorithm for an exposure time calibration is presented with experimental results of image processing.