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While attractive in principle, architecture-based self-adaptation raises a number of research and engineering challenges. First, the ability to handle a wide variety of systems must be addressed. Second, the need to reduce costs in adding external control to a system must be addressed. Our rainbow framework attempts to address both problems. By adopting an architecture-based approach, it provides reusable infrastructure together with mechanisms for specializing that infrastructure to the needs of specific systems. The specialization mechanisms let the developer of self-adaptation capabilities choose what aspects of the system to model and monitor, what conditions should trigger adaptation, and how to adapt the system.