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This paper presents a technique called "workload decomposition" in which the CPU workload is decomposed in two parts: on-chip and off-chip. The on-chip workload signifies the CPU clock cycles that are required to execute instructions in the CPU whereas the off-chip workload captures the number of external memory access clock cycles that are required to perform external memory transactions. When combined with a dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) technique to minimize the energy consumption, this workload decomposition method results in higher energy savings. The workload decomposition itself is performed at run time based on statistics reported by a performance monitoring unit (PMU) without a need for application profiling or compiler support. We have implemented the proposed DVFS with workload decomposition technique on the BitsyX platform, an Intel PXA255-based platform manufactured by ADS Inc., and performed detailed energy measurements. These measurements show that, for a number of widely used software applications, a CPU energy saving of 80% can be achieved for memory-bound programs while satisfying the user-specified timing constraints.