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We present a logical foundation for object-oriented specifications which supports a rigorous formal development of object-oriented systems. In this setting, we study two different views on a system, the implementor's view (glass-box view) and the user's view (black-box view) which both are founded on a model-theoretic semantics. We also discuss the hierarchical construction of specifications and realisations. Our approach is abstract in the sense that it can be instantiated by various concrete specification formalisms like OCL or JML.