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The task of recovering three-dimensional (3-D) geometry from two-dimensional views of a scene is called 3-D reconstruction. It is an extremely active research area in computer vision. There is a large body of 3-D reconstruction algorithms available in the literature. These algorithms are often designed to provide different tradeoffs between speed, accuracy, and practicality. In addition, even the output of various algorithms can be quite different. For example, some algorithms only produce a sparse 3-D reconstruction while others are able to output a dense reconstruction. The selection of the appropriate 3-D reconstruction algorithm relies heavily on the intended application as well as the available resources. The goal of this paper is to review some of the commonly used motion-parallax-based 3-D reconstruction techniques and make clear the assumptions under which they are designed. To do so efficiently, we classify the reviewed reconstruction algorithms into two large categories depending on whether a prior calibration of the camera is required. Under each category, related algorithms are further grouped according to the common properties they share.