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In this paper, the inverse problem of a homogeneous dielectric cylinder with unknown cross-section shape and dielectric constant by TE wave illumination is investigated. We have presented a study of applying the genetic algorithm to reconstruct the shapes and relative permittivity of a homogeneous dielectric cylinder by TE wave. Based on the equivalence principle, boundary condition and measured scattered fields, we have derived a set of nonlinear surface integral equations and reformulated the imaging problem into an optimized problem. Numerical results have been carried out and good reconstruction has been obtained.