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The European Space Agency Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission aims at obtaining global maps of soil moisture and sea surface salinity from space for large-scale and climatic studies. It uses an L-band (1400-1427 MHz) Microwave Interferometric Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis to measure brightness temperature of the earth's surface at horizontal and vertical polarizations (Th and Tv). These two parameters will be used together to retrieve the geophysical parameters. The retrieval of salinity is a complex process that requires the knowledge of other environmental information and an accurate processing of the radiometer measurements. Here, we present recent results obtained from several studies and field experiments that were part of the SMOS mission, and highlight the issues still to be solved.