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The development of high-performance optical receivers has been a primary driving force for research on III-V compound avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The evolution of fiber optic systems toward higher bit rates has pushed APD performance toward higher bandwidths, lower noise, and higher gain-bandwidth products. Utilizing thin multiplication regions has reduced the excess noise. Further noise reduction has been demonstrated by incorporating new materials and impact ionization engineering with beneficially designed heterostructures. High gain-bandwidth products have been achieved waveguide structures. Recently, imaging and sensing applications have spurred interest in low noise APDs in the infrared and the UV as well as large area APDs and arrays. This paper reviews some of the recent progress in APD technology.