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The robust adaptive control of uncertain robot manipulators was considered based on passivity theory. First, the robot system was converted into an affine nonlinear system through proper torque compensation. Second, the affine nonlinear system was transformed into cascading systems based on differential geometric theory, such that a robust passivity controller was gotten. At last, the robust controller which guarantees that the closed-loop systems were robust, global asymptotic stabilization was attained based on the relationship between the passivity theory and Lyapunov asymptotic stabilization.