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SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors and circuits toward terahertz communication applications

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11 Author(s)
Jae-Sung Rieh ; IBM Semicond. R&D Center, Hopewell Junction, NY, USA ; Jagannathan, B. ; Greenberg, D.R. ; Meghelli, M.
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The relatively less exploited terahertz band possesses great potential for a variety of important applications, including communication applications that would benefit from the enormous bandwidth within the terahertz spectrum. This paper overviews an approach toward terahertz applications based on SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) technology, focusing on broad-band communication applications. The design, characteristics, and reliability of SiGe HBTs exhibiting record fT of 375 GHz and associated fmax of 210 GHz are presented. The impact of device optimization on noise characteristics is described for both low-frequency and broad-band noise. Circuit implementations of SiGe technologies are demonstrated with selected circuit blocks for broad-band communication systems, including a 3.9-ps emitter coupled logic ring oscillator, a 100-GHz frequency divider, 40-GHz voltage-controlled oscillator, and a 70-Gb/s 4:1 multiplexer. With no visible limitation for further enhancement of device speed at hand, the march toward terahertz band with Si-based technology will continue for the foreseeable future.

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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:52 ,  Issue: 10 )