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A very efficient and accurate method to characterize two-dimensional (2-D) electromagnetic scattering from multilayered periodic arrays of parallel circular cylinders is presented, using the lattice sums technique, the aggregate T-matrix algorithm, and the generalized reflection and transmission matrices for a layered system. The method is quite general and applies to various configurations of 2-D periodic arrays. The unit cell of the array can contain two or more cylinders, which may be dielectric, conductor, gyrotropic medium, or their mixture with different sizes. The periodic spacing of cylinders along each array plane should be the same over all layers, but otherwise the cylinders in different layers may be different in material properties and dimensions. The numerical examples validate the usefulness and accuracy of the proposed method.