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We investigated the therapeutic effect of breathing ionized air in patients with chronic inflammation and decreased immune reactivity. Air ions were generated by an electroionizer, Tchijevsky Lustre. The air at the place of breathing contained 120 000 negative charges/cm3. By chemical nature, the negative air ions are superoxide at a concentration of less than 1 μM, and hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of about 1 μM. A three-week inhalation, for 1h daily, resulted in a decrease in the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interleukin-1 (IL-1), as well as excessive serotonin, while the level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interferon tended to increase. These changes in inflammatory mediators are accompanied by a diminishing of the clinical manifestations of inflammation. The finding that NAI decrease the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-1, and excessive serotonin explains the mechanism of their known curative effect in treatment of burns and opens a new area of their clinical applications for the treatment of other diseases related to the rise of TNF level, such as sepsis and even heart failure. The observed effects of negative air ions can be attributed to their ability to maintain a continuous flow of low concentration of H2O2, resulting from superoxide and serotonin oxidation. H2O2 at a low concentration, is a necessary activator of the immune system.