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This paper addresses the problems of building a functional mobile robot for urban site navigation and modeling with focus on keeping track of the robot location. We have developed a localization system that employs two methods. The first method uses odometry, a compass and tilt sensor, and a global positioning sensor. An extended Kalman filter integrates the sensor data and keeps track of the uncertainty associated with it. The second method is based on camera pose estimation. It is used when the uncertainty from the first method becomes very large. The pose estimation is done by matching linear features in the image with a simple and compact environmental model. We have demonstrated the functionality of the robot and the localization methods with real-world experiments.
Date of Publication: Oct. 2004