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An electronically-controlled metamaterial-based transmission line (TL) is demonstrated for the first time and applied to a continuous-scanning leaky-wave (LW) antenna. This transmission line is a composite right/left-handed (CRLH) microstrip structure incorporating varactor diodes for fixed-frequency voltage-controlled operation. The CRLH structure is rigorously analyzed in terms of the equivalent circuit models and dispersion diagrams. The TL behaviour is verified by way of its application as a LW antenna which is experimentally demonstrated. The antenna, operated at the fixed frequency of 3.1 GHz, exhibits the capability of continuous scanning from backward to forward angles over a range of 77° (from -41° to +36°), with efficient broadside radiation, by varying the varactors bias voltages from 15V to 0V (5V at broadside).