Scheduled System Maintenance:
On Monday, April 27th, IEEE Xplore will undergo scheduled maintenance from 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM ET (17:00 - 19:00 UTC). No interruption in service is anticipated.
By Topic

Refrigeration for superconductors

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

1 Author(s)
Radenbaugh, R. ; Cryogenic Technol. Group, Nat. Inst. of Stand. & Technol., Boulder, CO, USA

Temperatures in the range of 0.05 to 80 K are required for most applications of superconductors. Refrigeration powers range from fractions of a watt for many electronic applications to kilowatts for some large magnet and power applications. This paper reviews the various types of refrigeration methods currently available to meet the needs of various applications of superconductors. The methods covered include mainly the gas cycles, which are divided into the recuperative types (steady flow), such as the Joule-Thomson, Brayton, and Claude cycles, and the regenerative types (oscillating flow), such as Stirling, Gifford-McMahon, and pulse tube cycles. Methods for reaching millikelvin temperatures are briefly mentioned as well. The operating principles of the various methods are described, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are given to help the user understand which approach may work best for a particular application. All cryogenic refrigeration methods have a common set of problems that have hindered many applications of superconductors. These problems and recent developments to overcome some of these problems are discussed.

Published in:

Proceedings of the IEEE  (Volume:92 ,  Issue: 10 )