Skip to Main Content
In this paper, we present an exact analysis for third-order charge-pump phase-locked loops using state equations. Both the large-signal lock acquisition process and the small-signal linear tracking behavior are described using this analysis. The nonlinear state equations are linearized for the small-signal condition and the z-domain noise transfer functions are derived. A comparison to some of the existing analysis methods such as the impulse-invariant transformation and s-domain analysis is provided. The effect of the loop parameters and the reference frequency on the loop phase margin and stability is analyzed. The analysis is verified using behavioral simulations in MATLAB and SPECTRE.
Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:51 , Issue: 9 )
Date of Publication: Sept. 2004