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In contrast to the conventional block matching algorithm (BMA) in video coding, a backward predictive BMA which does not need the transmission of the motion vector is investigated. The motion vector is estimated using the previously estimated motion vectors and reconstructed pixels adjacent to a block to be coded. For application to low bit rate video coding, backward/forward adaptive BMA is devised. At 59 kbit/s the proposed scheme provides 0.2-0.5 dB improvement in peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) over the conventional BMA.