Skip to Main Content
The aim of this paper is to develop discrete stochastic approximation algorithms that adaptively optimize the spreading codes of users in a code-division multiple-access (CDMA) system employing linear minimum mean-square error (MMSE) receivers. The proposed algorithms are able to adapt to slowly time-varying channel conditions. One of the most important properties of the algorithms is their self-learning capability-they spend most of the computational effort at the global optimizer of the objective function. Tracking analysis of the adaptive algorithms is presented together with mean-square convergence. An adaptive-step-size algorithm is also presented for optimally adjusting the step size based on the observations. Numerical examples, illustrating the performance of the algorithms in multipath fading channels, show substantial improvement over heuristic algorithms.