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This paper describes an optimal design of 100 HP, 4 pole, 1800 rpm high temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motor in terms of energy efficiency and downsizing, i.e., specific power density. Bi-2223/Ag multifilamentary tape is used as a material of HTS field coil. Design variables and constraints are appropriately set up in consideration of electromagnetic characteristics. Size of the rotor and the stator is calculated with fundamental expressions based on the two-dimensional electromagnetic analysis. As an optimization technique to obtain the dimension of optimal specific power density or energy efficiency of the HTS motor, genetic algorithm (GA) which is well-known as aglobal optimal technique modeled on the concept of natural selection and evolution has been used. Electrical characteristics such as efficiency and V-curve for the HTS motor optimally designed are also investigated.